Universal Design for Learning

The concept of “universal design” is often credited to Ronald Mace, who was an architect and the founder of The Center for Universal Design (CUD). According to the CUD (2008) website, engaging in universal design involves “designing all products and the built environment to be aesthetic and usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life.” Some popular examples of universally-designed structures and products include curb cuts and ramps, closed captions, wide doors, and ergonomic handles.

While the concept of universal design originally applied to architecture and product design, it is now being used to design more accessible classroom content, particularly content for online courses. The educational equivalent of universal design is called Universal Design for Digital Environments (UDDE), Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), or Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Those who have practiced UDL in their courses suggest that universal design benefits all students (whether they require specific disability accommodations or not) because the course content is accessible in multiple formats and students have choices in how to engage with the material based on their learning needs.

Instructors can design more accessible and usable online content by keeping the needs of all types of learners in mind, including those with vision, hearing, or other types of disabilities. For example, instructors can include “text equivalents” (i.e., descriptions and captions) of all non-text content in their online courses, such as photographs, tables, and figures (Rowland et al., 2010). Instructors can also add closed captions to online videos or create transcripts for videos and podcasts (Rowland et al., 2010). By making such material available, instructors ensure that all students have appropriate access to course content and can meaningfully participate in learning activities. UDL scholarship has suggested that content accommodations should be incorporated into the beginning stages of the course design process, rather than as additions to existing course content (Rowland et al., 2010).

According to the Center for Applied Special Technology (2011), learning materials that follow universal design guidelines meet three criteria. They provide: 1) multiple means of representation, 2) multiple means of action and expression, and 3) multiple means of engagement. One example of providing “multiple means of representation” is presenting course material in multiple formats—for example: as text, as audio, and as a visual. For instance, when describing the characteristics of a chemical substance, instructors can present the information as a textual explanation (in paragraph form), as a mini auditory lecture, and as a visual concept map. An example of providing “multiple means of action and expression” is giving students options of how to demonstrate their understanding of a concept. Instructors can allow students to write a paper, create a multimedia project (e.g., video), take a test, engage in a debate, formal interview, structured dialogue, and so on. For each of these projects, the instructor guides students in setting goals for their work, planning their projects, findings resources, and monitoring their progress. An example of providing “multiple means of engagement” is letting students choose what specialized readings or topics they want to study in more depth (from a list of instructor-approved choices) so that they can develop “mastery” in one sub-topic of the general course based on their personal interests.

The annotated bibliography below points faculty to resources that may be of use when designing a course with UDL principles. Topics include: universal design/accessibility theory and practice; universal design/accessibility guidelines; tips for creating a UDL/accessible syllabus (including an “accessibility” statement); guidelines for creating accessible Word documents, PDFs, and PowerPoint presentations; sample course materials (syllabi, assignment sheets, and classroom activities); information on creating accessible videos and links to captioning tools; UCF-specific accessibility and disability resources; and strategies for teaching students with specific disabilities.


Universal Design / Accessibility Theory and Practice

CAST. (n.d.). UDL at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/library/video/udl_at_a_glance/

  • This brief video describes the three principles of UDL: multiple means of representation, multiple means of action and expression, and multiple means of engagement.
  • This video is also available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDvKnY0g6e4

FCSNVideos. (2009). Dr. David Rose on Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yETe92mwoUE

  • In this forty-five minute video, Dr. David Rose (developmental neuropsychologist and co-founder of CAST), describes how universal design principles have been incorporated into Universal Design for Learning (UDL). He then shares some images of brain functions with different modes of instruction. Next, he discusses the “disabilities” of books. While discussing these—and other—topics, Rose makes connections back to one of his former students, Matthew, who has physical and learning disabilities.

Link-Rodrigue, M. (2009, July 21). The inclusion principle. A List Apart. Retrieved from http://alistapart.com/article/the-inclusion-principle

  • In this article, Margit Link-Rodrigue explains the relationships among “affordances,” “accessibility,” and “universal design.” Simply stated, “affordance allows us to look at something and intuitively understand how to interact with it” (i.e., how to use an object), accessibility allows us to “execute the action required to [use an object],” and universal design is a combination of affordance and “all-embracing accessibility.” In other words, “In universal design, perceived affordance—that is, the implicit understanding of how to interact with an object—actually coincides with the user’s ability to execute the action. Universal design is, therefore, inherently accessible.” Following these definitional explanations, Link-Rodrigue lists five excuses web developers give to justify their inaccessible websites: they don’t have the personnel resources to redesign their website, they have not received complaints about their website’s accessibility, “accessible website are less aesthetically pleases and they limit … design options,” they don’t know what changes they need to make in order to create an accessible website, and “[their] target group doesn’t include users with disabilities.” As a partial answer to these excuses, Link-Rodrigue encourages approaching accessibility from the perspective of the “inclusion principle.” Using the inclusion principle, web developers embrace the unique needs of all users and “embrace similarities and differences at the individual and group levels for the attainment of the common endeavor.” Link-Rodrigue also includes examples of accessible / inclusive web content and links to useful external resources, such as the WebAIM quick reference guidelines.

Roberts, K. D., Park, H. J., Brown, S., & Cook, B. (2011). Universal design for instruction in postsecondary education: A systematic review of empirically based articles. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 24(1), 5-15. Retrieved from http://www.ahead.org/uploads/publications/JPED/jped_24_1/JPED%2024_1%20FINAL%20DOCUMENT.pdf

  • In addition to providing examples of the nine principles of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), this literature review also describes the findings of eight articles that met three criteria for inclusion in this article: 1) empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals, 2) published from the years 2000-2011 (the year the article was published), and 3) researched the use of UDL, UDI, UID, and/or UD in a higher education setting (p. 7). After summarizing each of the eight articles, the authors conclude that there is not enough empirical research on universal design for instruction’s effectiveness. They also offer recommendations for future UDI research: 1) “operationalize the principles of UDI to provide concrete constructs that can be ‘applied’ to specific activities and thus evaluated as to effectiveness,” 2) “apply the operationalized principles of UDI in intervention studies to investigate the impact on objective student outcome measures,” and 3) “continue to investigate the use of UDI in post-secondary educational settings to determine where and how it is effective in improving student outcomes” (pp. 13-14).

Williams, G. H. (2010, March 15). 5 suggestions concerning disability, accommodation, and the college classroom. The Chronicle of Higher Education: ProfHacker. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/5-suggestions-concerning-disability-accommodationthe-college-classroom/23040

  • In this brief article, George Williams offers five suggestions about disability accommodation in the classroom: faculty should “try to understand more fully what it’s like to have [a] particular disability” on the campus, maintain consistent expectations for both students with disabilities and students without disabilities, “think creatively about how to best respond to the students’ needs,” accommodate su


Universal Design / Accessibility Guidelines

Accessibility Accommodations Workgroup, HHS Web Governance Council. (2009). Guidelines and examples for determining the suitability of an accessibility accommodation. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/web/508/accomodation/index.html

  • This website contains explanations of when accommodations would need to be made in accordance with “Accessibility (508) Accommodation” standards. Topics discussed include multilingual PDF documents, complex PDF tables, password-protected sites, virtual environments, and so on.

Barstow, C., & Rothberg, M. (2002). IMS guidelines for developing accessible learning applications. Retrieved from http://www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/accessiblevers/

  • This website describes guidelines for designing and delivering course content. Faculty may be particularly interested in the following pages: “Guidelines for accessible delivery of text, audio, images, and multimedia,” “Guidelines for developing accessible asynchronous communication and collaboration tools,” and “Guidelines for developing accessible synchronous communication and collaboration tools.”

CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology). (2011). Universal design for learning guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/updateguidelines2_0.pdf

  • This figure describes the three guidelines of universal design for learning—multiple means of representation, multiple means of action and expression, and multiple means of engagement—by listing actions faculty can take to meet these guidelines.

CAST. (2014). UDL guidelines – Version 2.0: Principle 1. Provide multiple means of representation. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/principle1

  • This webpage contains explanations of “checkpoints” for the first principle of UDL: providing multiple means of representation. Categories include: options for perception, options for “language, mathematical expressions, and symbols,” and options for comprehension.

CAST. (2013). UDL guidelines – Version 2.0: Principle 2. Provide multiple means of action and expression. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/principle2

  • This webpage contains explanations of “checkpoints” for the second principle of UDL: providing multiple means of action and expression. Categories include: options for physical action, options for expression and communication, and options for “executive functions.” 

CAST. (2013). UDL guidelines – Version 2.0: Principle 3. Provide multiple means of engagement. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/principle3

  • This webpage contains explanations of “checkpoints” for the third principle of UDL: providing multiple means of engagement. Categories include: options for recruiting interest, options for sustaining effort and persistence, and options for self-regulation.

Center for Persons with Disabilities, Utah State University. (2014). Quick reference: Web accessibility principles. WebAIM. Retrieved from http://webaim.org/resources/quickref/

  • This website describes ten principles of web accessibility and provides links to webpages that explain each principle in more detail. The ten principles of web accessibility are: provide appropriate alternative text (for images), ensure content is well-structured and clearly written, help uses navigate to relevant content, provide headers for data tables, do not rely on color alone to convey meaning, ensure users can complete and submit all forms, ensure links make sense out of context, caption and/or provide transcripts for media, ensure accessibility of non-HTML content, and pay attention to miscellaneous accessibility needs (such as limiting pop-up windows, ensuring that page text is readable when font sizes are enlarged, etc.).

National Center for Accessible Media. (2009). Accessible digital media guidelines. Retrieved from http://ncam.wgbh.org/invent_build/web_multimedia/accessible-digital-media-guide

  • This website contains links to guidelines and design techniques for various types of course content such as images, tables, and graphs.

United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. (2010). ADA standards for accessible design. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm

  • This website contains links to download PDF and .html copies of the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design.

University of Connecticut, Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability, Center for Students with Disabilities. (n.d.). Examples of UDI in online and blended courses. Retrieved from http://udi.uconn.edu/index.php?q=content/examples-udi-online-and-blended-courses

  • This webpage contains a table defining each of the nine principles of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) and examples of how to incorporate that principle in the classroom. These nine principles are: equitable use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive instruction, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, appropriate size and space for approach and use, a community of learners, and a welcoming and inclusive instructional climate.

Usability First. (n.d.). Principles of accessible and universal design. Retrieved from http://www.usabilityfirst.com/about-usability/accessibility/principles-of-accessible-and-universal-design/

  • This webpage describes some general principles of universal design, offers tips for building accessible websites, and offers tips for checking the accessibility of your own website.

WebAIM. (2012). WebAIM quick reference: Web accessibility principles. Retrieved from http://webaim.org/resources/quickref/quickref.pdf

  • This single-sheet handout describes principles of accessible web design based on the category of web content, such as alternative text, data tables, forms, and links.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (2011). WAI Guidelines and Techniques. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/WAI/guid-tech.html

  • This website links to various “web accessibility” guidelines, techniques, and resources. Faculty may be particularly interested in the “How to meet WCAG 2.0” page, which is a reference for creating text alternatives to image-based content; making content readable, navigable, and keyboard compatible; and other accessibility concerns.

W3C. (n.d.). Requirements for providing text to act as an alternative for images. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/embedded-content-0.html#alt

  • This website explains general guidelines for providing text alternatives to images and includes HTML 5 code examples for each guideline.

Tips for Creating a UDL / Accessible Syllabus

Aase, S. A., Alexander, I. D., Kamenar, T., & Martin, K. (n.d.). Incorporating universal design principles in the development, delivery, and assessment of your instruction [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/prod/groups/ohr/@pub/@ohr/@ctl/documents/asset/ohr_asset_366203.pdf. Copy available here.

  • This 39-slide presentation describes some universal design principles, the concept of backward design, and three actions that faculty can take to incorporate UD principles into their course now: revise their syllabus, use appropriate technology, and take next steps. Of particular interest are slides 21, 26, and 27. On slide 21, the authors list some considerations for designing a course syllabus. On slide 26, the authors list nine principles of UDI (Universal Design for Instruction). These principles are based on the University of Connecticut’s “Examples of UDI in online and blended courses” (referenced above). On slide 27, the authors provide UDI examples and links to external resources.

Behlin, K. (n.d.). Universally designing a syllabus. Equity and Excellence in Higher Education: Universal Course Design. Retrieved from http://media.umb.edu/syllabustutorial/

  • This online tutorial presentation describes the benefits of using a universally-designed syllabus and includes specific advice for designing each section of the syllabus, including the title, course description and location, instructor information, office hours location, required reading list, course requirements, course schedule, description of evaluation methods, and disability statement.

EnACT~PTD. (n.d.). UDL-Universe: A comprehensive universal design for learning faculty development guide. Retrieved from http://enact.sonoma.edu/content.php?pid=218878&sid=2032318

  • In the right-hand menu titled “UDL Syllabus Statement,” there is an example:
    “As your instructor, I feel I have a responsibility to do everything within reason to actively support a wide range of learning styles and abilities.  As such, I have taken training and applied the principles of Universal Design for Learning to this course.  Feel free to discuss your progress in this course with me at any time.  In addition, if you require any accommodations, submit your verified accommodations form to me during the first two weeks of the course.”

EnACT~PTD. (2012). Universal design for learning: A rubric for evaluating your course syllabus. Retrieved from  http://lgdata.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/docs/2205/289066/UDL_Syllabus_Rubric_UPDATED_2-9-2012.pdf

  • This rubric describes three levels of universal design principles for syllabi—from a “traditional” syllabus to an “enhanced” syllabus and finally an “exemplary” syllabus—based on eleven elements: the instructor’s contact information; a list of required textbooks and materials; a description of course objectives, assignments, and due dates; explanations of how to complete and submit course assignments; a description of grading criteria and rubrics; a course calendar; a list of other campus resources; and the length, format, and visibility of the syllabus document.
  • For an explanation of the rubric and how to use it, visit: http://enact.sonoma.edu/content.php?pid=218878&sid=2032318

Iowa State University Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching. (2016). Recommended Iowa State University syllabus statements. Retrieved from http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/preparing-to-teach/recommended-iowa-state-university-syllabus-statements

  • This website contains example syllabus disability statements, including a statement on “Harassment and Discrimination” and “Disability Accommodation.”

Karen L. Smith Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Statements. Retrieved from http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/TeachingAndLearningResources/CourseDesign/Syllabus/statements.php#accessibility

  • This section of the webpage provides two sample course accessibility statements. It also suggests that faculty also reference the “Suggested practices for syllabus accessibility statements” resource created by Wood & Madden (referenced below).

Pompos, L. (2014). Course syllabi with language about universal design, accessibility, and/or inclusion. Retrieved from https://webcourses2c.instructure.com/courses/1021982/files/35063454/download. Copy available here.

  • This annotated bibliography contains three sections: descriptions of (and links to) example syllabi with language about UDL and/or accessibility, descriptions of (and links to) example syllabi that incorporate UDL principles in their design and delivery, and tips and rubrics for designing UDL/accessible course materials. The first also section contains sample syllabus statements about “accessibility,” “disability,” and “universal design.” In particular, faculty should reference Wood & Madden’s (2013) “Suggested practices for syllabus accessibility statements.” The third section also contains examples of “people-first” language, which should be used when describing persons with disabilities.

Sacramento State, Academic Technology & Creative Services. (2011). Instructional materials – Templates. Retrieved from http://www.csus.edu/atcs/tools/instructional/templates.stm

  • This webpage lists three steps for creating an accessible syllabus, links to external syllabus templates, and recommends that instructors perform a syllabus “accessibility check.”

Sample, M. (2013, September 9). Accessibility statements on syllabuses. The Chronicle of Higher Education: ProfHacker. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/accessibility-statements-on-syllabuses/52079?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en

  • In this brief article, Mark Sample points readers to the “Suggested Practices for Syllabus Accessibility Statements” wiki by Tara Woods and Shannon Madden (cited below). Sample also includes his revised accessibility statement (which is framed in terms of universal learning), and explains why he changed its location to appear near the beginning of his syllabus.

University of Connecticut, Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability, Center for Students with Disabilities. (n.d.). Syllabus template. Retrieved from http://www.udi.uconn.edu/index.php?q=content/syllabus-template

University of Massachusetts Boston: Equity and Excellence in Higher Education. (n.d.). Tips to reach all students with a universally designed syllabus. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/ud_syll_tips.pdf

  • This tip sheets offers advice on how faculty can add content to existing syllabi in order for these documents to align with universal design principles. The six categories of tips are: presenting information in multiple formats, pointing students to resources, providing background information, building in flexibility, presenting information in a digital mode, and including the appropriate amount of information.

Wood, T., & Madden, S. (2013). Suggested practices for syllabus accessibility statements. Retrieved from http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/praxis/index.php/Suggested_Practices_for_Syllabus_Accessibility_Statements

  • This website describes the importance of disability statements, encourages faculty to develop their own, and prompts them to consider the placement of the statement in their syllabus. In addition, the site includes numerous examples of disability and UDL statements.


Tips for Creating an Accessible Word Document, PDF, and PowerPoint Presentation

Adobe. (2014). Accessibility > By product > Adobe Acrobat. Retrieved from http://www.adobe.com/accessibility/products/acrobat.html

  • This website links to accessibility guides and templates for Adobe Acrobat XI, XI Standard, XI Pro, and InDesign.

Microsoft. (n.d.). Creating accessible PowerPoint presentations. Microsoft Office. Retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/powerpoint-help/creating-accessible-powerpoint-presentations-HA102013555.aspx

  • This article published by Microsoft includes nine tips (with explanations of how to implement them) for making your PowerPoint presentation more accessible: add alternative text to images and objects, specific column header information in tables, add unique titles to slides, use meaningful hyperlink text, use a simple table structure, avoid using blank cells for formatting, include closed captions for any audio or video, think about the logical order of slides, and increase visibility for colorblind viewers.

San Francisco State University. (n.d.). PowerPoint accessibility checklist. Accessible Technology Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.sfsu.edu/~dprc/access/instruction/documents.html

  • This checklist contains eight questions that faculty should ask when assessing the accessibility of their PowerPoint presentations. Some of the considerations include using existing PowerPoint layouts (which can be read by screen readers), including content from the slide in the outline view, and providing text alternatives for all word art and images in the slideshow.

San Francisco State University. (n.d.). Top traits: Word accessibility. Accessible Technology Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.sfsu.edu/~dprc/access/instruction/documents.html

  • This brief Microsoft Word document lists the four top traits of an accessible Word document: readable (to screen reader), navigable (with heading styles), explicative (with alternate text), and structured (with tables, not tabs). 

San Francisco State University. (n.d.). Word accessibility checklist. Accessible Technology Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.sfsu.edu/~dprc/access/instruction/documents.html

  • This checklist is a nine-item rubric for assessing the accessibility of a Word document.

Schmidt, D. E., & Evans, L. (n.d.). EnACT Aim: PowerPoints for all learners: Making accessible PowerPoint presentations. Retrieved from http://myweb.csuchico.edu/~dschmidt/accessibility/

  • This webpage contains a PowerPoint “module” (a presentation), a rubric for grading the accessibility of PowerPoint presentations, and student examples of presentations following the principles outlined in the module and rubric. According to the authors, “the goal for this module is to provide an easily accessible resource of techniques for enhancing access to information in PowerPoint presentations.”
  • For a direct link to download the PowerPoint module, visit http://myweb.csuchico.edu/~dschmidt/accessibility/powerpoints_for_all_learners.ppt


Sample Course Materials (Syllabi, Assignment Sheets) with Accessibility/UDL Principles

Doe, J. (n.d.). Expository writing: Exploding the nuclear family: How the American dream became the American consumer dream. Retrieved from http://www.communityinclusion.org/udl/ex1.html

  • This example online syllabus contains annotation boxes that explain how the syllabus incorporates UDL principles. For example, in the phone contact section of the syllabus, Professor Doe includes a TTY number and the following annotation: “To ensure access to ALL students, include a TTY number for students who are hard of hearing or deaf. Check with your Disability Services office for the TTY phone number on your campus.”

EnACT~PTD. (n.d.). UDL-Universe: A comprehensive universal design for learning faculty development guide. Retrieved from http://enact.sonoma.edu/content.php?pid=218878&sid=2032318

  • In the right-hand menu titled “Visually Enhanced Syllabi,” there are links to PDF copies of sample syllabi that feature interesting visual elements. Please note, though, that many of these examples would also need to be complemented by HTML-only versions (for accessibility reasons) and that the disability statements included do not contain language about “accessibility” or “universal learning.”

Gragoudas, S., Hart, D., & Behling, K. (2006). Form A: 2006 special education institutes summary information. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/sampl_courses/summ_inst_ud_syl.pdf

  • This syllabus features a visual concept map of the course, hyperlinks to external resources and course descriptions, and a color-coded calendar.

Haven, V. C., & Behling, K. T. (2007). Designing for inclusion: Introduction to accessible technologically-mediated instruction. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/sampl_courses/valerie_ucd_syll.pdf

  • This syllabus features photos of the professors and the campus, links to external resources, and images of the required texts.

(n.d.). Human movement lab 1. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/hum_mov_labs.pdf

  • This syllabus features photographs, figures, and links to external resources.

Moor, S., & Allan, O. (2005). Education 750-850: Introduction to exceptionality. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/sampl_courses/exampl_syll.pdf

  • This syllabus features images, hyperlinks, and a color-coded calendar.

Shelton, L. (2007). Human development. Retrieved from http://www.universalcoursedesign.org/images/stories/eeonline_docs/sampl_courses/larry_syll.pdf

  • This course syllabus include images of the course website and meeting room, as well as links to external resources, a more detailed (text-only) syllabus, and mp3 recordings of past lectures.

Wideman, M., & Odrowski, S. (2012). Sample assignment using UDL guideline multiple means of expression. UDL Principle II: Multiple Means of Expression. Retrieved from https://ssbp.mycampus.ca/www_ains_dc/Introduction7.html

  • This assignment sheet describes six choices that students in an educational psychology course can choose from in order to complete the assignment. The choices include a poster presentation, research report, ten-minute presentation, video/computer object, and creative interpretation. For each type of assignment, the professors described the expectations of that choice and speculate about what types of learners may be interested in completing that type of assignment.
  • For a direct link to download the assignment sheet, visit https://ssbp.mycampus.ca/www_ains_dc/Sample%20Assignment%20using%20UDL%20guideline%20Multiple%20Means%20of%20Expression.pdf


Tips and Tools for Creating Accessible Video Content (Closed Captioned-Videos)


  • Amara is a captioning platform that combines volunteer (crowdsourced) captioning services and pro services (i.e., organizations can order subtitles for their videos). Users can begin creating a subtitle for a video by visiting this page: http://www.amara.org/en/videos/create/

YouTube: Add captions

  • This webpage contains a link to Google’s “Caption file” and “Transcript” guides. In addition, Google lists a series of simple steps for uploading caption files or transcripts to videos and transcribing and syncing the captions with the video audio track.

Karen L. Smith Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Video content. Retrieved from http://fctl.ucf.edu/TeachingAndLearningResources/Technology/Video/content.php

  • This webpage contains two sections that are useful for faculty who would like to include video content in their courses. The first section contains an annotated list of links to sources of free “video content with closed captions and/or transcripts.” About halfway down the page, there is also a section on “tools to create your own captioned videos,” which includes a tutorial for adding captions to YouTube videos and links to Amara and CaptionTube.

Williams, G. (2013, February 7). Use Amara to crowdsource captions on your entire YouTube channel. The Chronicle of Higher Education: ProfHacker. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/use-amara-to-crowdsource-captions-on-your-entire-youtube-channel/46141

  • This brief article shares an announcement from Amara about a new feature: users can connect their YouTube accounts to Amara and invite other Amara users to caption their videos.

UCF (CDL, FCTL, and SAS) Accessibility and Disability Resources

Karen L. Smith Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Teaching and accessibility. Retrieved from http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/TeachingAndLearningResources/Accessibility/

  • This webpage presents a table of UCF-specific accessibility resources. After describing each resource, the page includes a link to the corresponding website.

UCF Center for Distributed Learning. (2011). Accessibility Tips. Teaching Online. Retrieved from https://cdl.ucf.edu/teach-online/develop/accessibility/

  • This webpage offers tips in two categories: creating accessible content for the web (e.g., formatting text, organizing documents, including alternative text for images and documents) and using different file formats and multimedia content online (e.g., links to Microsoft Word document formatting guidelines, PDF formatting guidelines, and Adobe Connect software information).

UCF Student Accessibility Services. (2014). Resources. Retrieved from http://sas.sdes.ucf.edu/resources

  • This webpage describes and links to six SDS resources: a list of campus departments and offices that “have disability services not provided by SDS,” a list of UCF computer labs with accessible technology, a PDF explaining the SDS appeal and grievance procedures, the discrimination grievance process, a PDF explaining UCF’s animal accommodations policy for service/emotional support animals, and a description of “temporary impairments.”

UCF Student Accessibility Services. (2016). Accommodations. Retrieved from http://sas.sdes.ucf.edu/accommodations

  • This webpage explains some common academic accommodations and services, such as notetaking services, alternative text formats, ASL interpreting, etc. There is also a section of services for students with temporary impairments.


Strategies for Teaching Students with Specific Disabilities

Ferris State University Disabilities Services:
Instructional strategies – ADD/ADHD
Psychiatric / Psychological Instructional Strategies
Teaching strategies for hearing impaired students
Teaching strategies for mobility impaired students
Teaching strategies for vision impaired students
Instructional Strategies for Teaching Students with Traumatic Brain Injury / Acquired Brain Impairment
Instructional Strategies for Students with Systemic / Medical Disabilities
Instructional Strategies for Students with Asperger's and Autism Spectrum Disorders
Instructional Strategies for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Valencia College Office for Students with Disabilities:
Faculty Resource Guide (see pages 14-19)

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Sandra Wheeler
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Arup Guha
College of Engineering & Computer Science Arup   Guha The ultimate goal of any educator should be to enable his/her students to achieve their potential, not only in a specific class, but in life in general. I attempt to attain this goal through four major techniques: providing a friendly classroom atmosphere, providing encouragement for all groups of students, adapti...